One Stop Border Post (OSBP)
The OSBP refers to the legal and institutional framework, facility and associated procedures that enable goods, people and vehicles to stop in a single facility in which they undergo necessary controls following applicable regional and national laws to exit one State and enter the adjoining State.
An OSBP is the application of joint controls to minimize routine activities and duplications across borders.
OSBP is a border management model that promotes a coordinated and integrated approach to;
- Facilitate trade, the movement of people, and improving security.
- The border crossing dwell times for travelers and transporters i.e shortens the clearance time at the border crossing points.
- Reduce logistic costs.
Concept of OSBPs
The OSBP concept consists of four pillars:
- Legal and Institutional Framework:
It is generally agreed that the application of national laws is limited to the territory of a state. OSBPs rely on the principle of extraterritorial application of laws, which allows a state to extend the application of specific national laws outside its own territory.
- Simplification and Harmonization of Procedures:
Implementing an OSBP requires simplifying and harmonizing border crossing procedures rendering an OSBP effective.
- ICT and Data Exchange
ICT is a critical component of collaborative single window systems, simplification of documentation, border management, and modernization of customs, immigration, and related services.
- Hardware Infrastructure
This includes OSBP facilities such as offices for border officials, operational equipment, warehouses, and parking.
Rationale for OSBPs
The major reason for establishing OSBPs along transport corridors is to expedite the movement of goods and people, and to reduce transport costs across national boundaries;
At an OSBP, passengers, cargo and vehicles stop once to undertake border crossing formalities to exit one Partner State and enter the other;
All border formalities and the processing of documentation for goods and passengers are carried out in a single clearance hall for exiting one Partner State and entering the adjoining State;
If cargo inspection is required, to the extent possible, it is done at once through a joint inspection involving all the necessary agencies from both Partner States at the same time.
In order to achieve its goal, the following principles govern the functioning of an OSBP:
- Only one stop by users for both exit and entry clearance controls;
- Establishment of a control zone combining exit and entry controls;
- Direct movement of border crossing traffic to the control zone of the country of entry;
- Proper traffic management according to categories of users;
- Use of appropriate signage to guide the users at OSBPs;
- Completion of exit procedures before entry procedures;
- Reliance of the adjoining Partner State upon the host Partner State for security and management of the portion of the control on the exit side of the OSBP;
- Designation by each Partner State of a lead agency to coordinate OSBP management;
- Extraterritorial application of national laws in the control zone in the adjoining host Partner State;
- Allocation by the Host Partner State to the adjoining Partner State of adequate and comparable facilities on the basis of indicated needs; and
- Application of risk management by border agencies to facilitate operations at OSBPs.
TYPES OF OSBPs
There are three types or models of OSBPs:
• Juxtaposed Model
• Straddled Model
• Wholly located model (Single Country)
Under the juxtaposed model, State A and State B share facilities in the country of entry. This implies that passengers and cargo stop only once in the country of entry for both exit and entry formalities. Exit formalities must be done before undertaking entry formalities, e.g Taveta/Holili and Malaba/Malaba.
All OSBP offices in Tanzania are of Juxtaposed Model
This is where a single facility is built across the border line for the two adjoining states to share
Similarly, passengers and cargo stop once but start with exit formalities before undertaking entry formalities. e.g Nemba/Gasenyi
Wholly located model (Single Country)
Is the (common) single country model, i.e, an OSBP wholly located in one of the two adjoining states, a single shared border facility is constructed in one of the countries to house officers from both countries to carry out border controls e.g Ruhwa
Current Working OSBPs:
Benefits of OSBPs
To the National governments
- Improved collection of trade taxes associated with efficiency gains
- Efficient borders that facilitate international trade, investment, and economic growth
- Promotion of economic competitiveness
- Improved border security
- Better utilization of government resources by border agencies
- Promotion of better international relations between countries
To the Border Control Agencies
- Better resource utilization through improved cross-border cooperation and sharing of intelligence, operational data, and resources using Coordinated Border Management (CBM) and Integrated Border Management (IBM) concepts
- Improved employee motivation, which translates to increased productivity through the use of simplified and harmonized procedures as well as from working with better facilities. e.g., buildings, equipment, furniture
- Better environment for increased use of ICT and faster processing due to simplified and harmonized procedures
- Improved traffic flow and improved border infrastructure, especially where modifications are to be undertaken
- Increased transparency, which enhances security and helps reduce corruption.
To the Road Transport Operators, Shippers, and Customs Agents
- Reduction in delays at borders and in operating costs
- Greater asset utilization in respect of truck turnaround times
- Predictability of border and transit procedures
- Faster processing of documents and travelers
To Manufacturers and Traders
- Savings in the cost of inputs
- Increased reliability of shipments enabling reduced inventories
- Reduced capital tied up in logistics through just-in-time delivery
- Reduced cost of consumer products
- Increased availability of goods
Travelers and Tourists
- Reduced time spent at borders
- Predictable, simplified and harmonized procedures